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Landmark review of the use of teaching and learning of English in Latin America

Landmark review of the use of teaching and learning of English in Latin America


12. Cable and satellite TV

TVA, owned and nm by Editora Abril (a large press group), is one of three pay services which makes programes in English available to mass audiences. TVA offers 18 channels, many of them with SAP clones, with a wide variety of news and entertainment options. Some channels use original soundtracks for films with added subtitles. It now has a total of some 460,000 subscribers, distributed as follows:

City Subscribers
Brasilia 64,000
Goiania 17,000
Belem 23,000
Rio de Janeiro 110,000
Curitiba 52,000
Sao Paulo 194,000

NET, owned by the powerful Rede Globe press and TV group, probably has the same number of subscribers, taking the country as a whole. NET claims to offer 45 channels, but some of them are the same programme in Portuguese and in the original language (usually English).

DirecTV- the satellite system that offers BBC World Service television- offers 40 channels. Information on subscribers is treated as confidential.

13. Translators and Interpreters

SINTRA Sindicato de Tradutores I Translators' Union Rio de Janeiro

This Translators' union has around 600 members and is striving to regulate the profession of text translation. To join the union, candidates must have a degree in Modem Languages/Translation from a university, or a degree in Modem Languages with extra courses in translation, or proof of activity as a professional translator. The union has a recommended minimum rate for translation, which is R%19.00 per page for technical translation and IC614.00 per page for literary translation.

Information: Maria Nila Soares
SINTRA, Rua Quitanda 194, salas 1206-7, 20091-000 Rio de Janeiro, RJ

In Brasilia, text translation rates are generally higher: good text translators can earn R$30-55 per page- a page being 25 lines of 60 strokes each.

APIC - the Association of Professional Conference Interpreters is based in Sao Paulo- Rua Maranhao, 554, cj 65 60. andar, 01240-000 Sao Paulo, SP. Telephone/Fax 011 826 2319. This group is highly selective. I has 48 members, 13 correspondents in other countries and 11 candidates for membership. All work as autonomous professionals, but maintain contact with each other through the Association.

A good professional simultaneous interpreter would expect to earn US%550 per day, working in a team of two for a 6-hour day. Each overtime hour or fraction is charge at 25% of a day's pay. Although some groups charge less than this, quality may be dubious.

ALUMNI, one of the two US Binational Centers in S~o Paulo, runs a two-year training course for translators and interpreters. A number of universities also offer Translation as a degree course within their Modem languages department (see 5.4 above).

Subtitling and dubbing for TV must be quite a large industry in Brazil. In local cinemas, all films are shown with original soundtracks and subtitles (of variable quality), except a small number of productions for children, such as the most recent Walt Disney films. Brazilian TV makes more use of dubbed films, most often produced by Herbert Richers and Telecine, but some are shown with subtitles.


Government investment plans for Education

a) SEPLAN (Brazilian Planning Ministry) investment priorities for education
Project Aims Current situation Total budget
Distance education; TV escola Develope public-sector school managers and teachers through a special TV channel for education; distribution of equipment to recieve and record school TV programmes 44,000 kits (parabolic antenna, TV + video) distributed = 81% of the target figure. The project has so far put out 40 hours of educational programmes R$76,200,000
Centralising financial resources in schools Improve public-sector school management through transferring funding direct to 230,000 schools 156,323 schools throughout the country included in the project by 1996 (=68% of the target figure); provisions to increase this to 223,000 schools by the end of 1997 (=97% of target figure) R$512,000,000
Valuing and enhancing the teaching profession Reorganisation of career plans and salary scales, guarantee of minimum levels of remuneration for teachers in Basic Education The Fund for Maintenance and Development of Primary Education and Enhancement of the Teaching Profession has been implemented through Constitutional Amendment No. 14 (13.09.96) and the date for automatic implantation is set for January 1st 1998 R$823,000,000

Source: SEPLAN (Ministry of PIanning rod tbe Budget) (www.scplnn.gov.br)

b) Inter-American Development Bank

Proposals submitted for approval in September 1997
Project title Aims Executing agency Budget in US $
BR-0247 Reform of the Professional To improve professional training and retraining by separating professional/vocational and academic education at Secondary School level, provide post-Secondary School courses; transform CEFETs (Federal Technical Education Centres) from Secondary Schools to Professional Further Education centres MEC Ministry of Education + MTb Ministry of Labour IDB $300m Brazil $200m
BR 0247 Expansion and improvement of Secondary Education Meet the increasing demand for Secondary School through provision for more education and more innovative methods, including distance learning MEC Ministry of Education IDB $100m Brazil $65m

(Source: Inter-American Development Bank www.iadb.org)

c) UNDP- United Nations Development Programme / World Bank Educational projects for Brazil
Project title Aims Executing agency Budget in US $
1995-1998 Improvement of Basic Education BRA/95/013 Improve quality of elementary education through : 1. the development and implementation of new curricular parameters; 2. developing a national policy for the 8 years of Basic Education with improved universal access through partnership between State and Municipal Secretariats of Education 3. reorganising the SEF (Basic Education Secretariat) for improved training, debureaucratisation and decentralisation MEC- Ministry of Education 4,506,000
1996-1998 Innovations in Basic Education Project BRA/95/022/A/99 Improve quality of education and reduce failure rates among children from low-income families in Sao Paulo State through revision of educational models, decentralisation of services, strengthening of Secretariat training programmes, etc. Secretariat of Education Sao Paulo State 40,769,976
1995-1998 Implementation of Basic Education Actions in the Country- SEF/MEC and State/ Municipal Education Secretariats BRA/95/014/F/99 As above Co-ordination of different levels of government SEF/MEC and State/Municipal Education Secretariats 5,623,243
1995-1998 Basic Education for the Northeast Region BRA/95/013/F/99 Modernisation of school management, updating teaching material, training human resources, adoption of pedagogical innovations, and improvement/ construction of school buildings MEC Ministry of Education 15,340,389
1992-1998 National Basic Education Evaluation System BRA/92/002/F/99 Development of an evaluation system for the National Basic Education System (Fundamental/Primary and Medio/High School) MEC Ministry of Education 8,162,751
1992-1997 Reference Center on Education Experiments and Innovations BRA/92/003/J/99 Set up a Central Educational Reference Center to Disseminate critical educational innovations as input to policy-making and the rational use of resources in Education MEC Ministry of Education 4,293,913
1996-1998 Long Distance Education National Programme BRA/96/007/A/99 Production and use of distance training materials (TV programs / informatics) Secretariat Distance Ed/MEC 7,439,760
1996-1997 Co-ordination of the UNDP's Education System Co-operation BRA/96/007/A/99 Training in project planning, target-setting, evaluation, etc, for educational projects MEC Ministry of Education 315,500

These projects reflect the Brazilian government's priority for Basic (Primary) education.

External funding normally comes from World Bank loans and is matched by Brazilian government investment.

All UNDP/World Bank projects have an institutional strengthening component. This is particularly important for educational administration in the North-east of Brazil.

Total World Bank funding for Brazil includes 67 loans, totalling $9.5 billion.

Brazil is the World Bank's fifth largest client in the world..

In social areas the World Bank has identified six priorities for Brazil, one of which is education. The others are health and nutrition, urban reform, water and sewage in urban areas, rural water supply and rural poverty.

Forward to Part 2 of Appendix
Return to Brazil Index

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