Public sector primary schools
|Is EYL taught
as an official part of the curriculum in public sector primary
|At what age
do students begin EYL?
approximately (Primary Year 1)
significant changes in teaching EYL taken place since 1980?
||Before 1989 it was
introduced in most state-owned schools from Year 6 (11-12 years)
but the start age was lowered to cover all primary Year 1 students
any widespread teaching of English before the official starting
age for compulsory EYL?
Those who send their children to government
schools have no choice, but those who can afford
it send their children to private schools.
hours a week/school year are officially allocated for EYL?
time varies from school to school, depending on
the number of teachers available, but there is a
minimum of 35 minutes per day for 6 days per week.
are 33 weeks in a school teaching year = 2hours
10 minutes per week.
EYL teachers and students are there in the public education system?
statistics available. There are no special
teachers of English at primary level.
the EYL teaching?
children's normal class teacher (almost 100%)
|Who is eligible
to teach EYL in the public education system?
||Any teacher who has
qualified to become a primary teacher in the public sector. Such
a teacher will have at least a secondary school certificate (nowadays
they prefer a higher secondary school certificate). In Pakistan
English is a compulsory subject until the BA and it is also compulsory
for the 9 month in-service teacher training course in which teachers
have to qualify.
are schools able to recruit enough EYL teachers?
A number of measures were taken, e.g., university
graduates were recruited for this purpose but
since their selection was not in line with the
general recruitment policy they could not be
absorbed into the system. The government also
arranged intensive in-service workshops for the
teachers and this is the strategy that the
government continues to follow when it has
guidelines exist for EYL teaching?
the federal level there is a detailed syllabus
but then all the schools have prescribed
textbooks from which the teachers have to teach
hence the teachers teach English as a
|Do EYL teaching
materials have to be approved?
schools have to follow the prescribed textbook
and the teachers find it easy to do that. Though
the teachers are free to supplement the textbooks
with any materials they like, they cannot do so
because they cannot find the time. They have to
finish the coursebooks.
are typically used?
foreign languages are taught at primary level?
for most children is L2 and is introduced at the
same time as English, but in some parts of the
country (Sindh and the North-West Frontier
Province) it is introduced at Primary Year 5 (if
they are learning one of the regional languages).
Most of the children also learn the basics of
Arabic at the same time, mostly from private
tutors and learn to read the Quran by the age of
|Are any changes
in the provision of EYL planned or anticipated?
Private sector primary schools
a significant number of these schools?
of primary age children attends them?
small urban minority. At present no statistics
in EYL provision exist from public sector primary schools?
provision in private schools for general
education differs significantly. These schools
have better qualified teachers, different books
in most cases they use books and materials
published internationally and a better
do they use for EYL?
and materials published internationally
Private tuition for Young Learners
private tuition for primary age children?
tuition exists, but not just for English. It is
included among other subjects.
Young Learners are involved?
statistics exist but quite a significant number
of children get private tuition
|What is the
typical starting age for private tuition?
|Why do parents
use private tutors?
private schools the teachers' expectations of the
children are usually high and some of the
students find it difficult to cope with all
subjects being taught in English. The parents
either have little time for their children or
their own language skills do not match with the
course. After all, English is only an official
language and still more or less a foreign
language, though a very familiar one.